Article 2.

Right to Foreclose or Sell under Power.

§ 45-4.  Representative succeeds on death of mortgagee or trustee in deeds of trust; parties to action.

When the mortgagee in a mortgage, or the trustee in a deed in trust, executed for the purpose of securing a debt, containing a power of sale, dies before the payment of the debt secured in such mortgage or deed in trust, all the title, rights, powers and duties of such mortgagee or trustee pass to and devolve upon the executor or administrator or collector of such mortgagee or trustee, including the right to bring an action of foreclosure in any of the courts of this State as prescribed for trustees or mortgagees, and in such action it  is unnecessary to make the heirs at law of such deceased mortgagee or trustee parties thereto. (1887, c. 147; 1895, c. 431; 1901, c. 186; 1905, c. 425; Rev., s. 1031; C.S., s. 2578; 1933, c. 199.)

 

§ 45-5.  Foreclosures by representatives validated.

In all actions which were brought or prosecuted prior to the fourth day of March, 1905, for the foreclosure of any mortgage or deed in trust by any executor or administrator of any deceased mortgagee or trustee where the heirs of the mortgagee were duly made parties and regular and orderly decrees of foreclosure entered by the court and sale had by a commissioner appointed by the court for that purpose and deed made after confirmation, the title so conveyed to purchaser at such judicial sale shall be deemed and held to be vested in such purchaser, whether the heir of such deceased mortgagee or trustee was a party to such foreclosure proceeding or not, and such heir of any deceased mortgagee is estopped to bring or prosecute any further action against such purchaser for the recovery of such property or foreclosure of such mortgage or deed in trust. (1905, c. 425, s. 2; Rev., s. 1032; C.S., s. 2579.)

 

§ 45-6.  Renunciation by representative; clerk appoints trustee.

The executor or administrator of any deceased mortgagee or trustee in any mortgage or deed of trust heretofore or hereafter executed may renounce in writing, before the clerk of the superior court before whom he qualifies, the trust under the mortgage or deed of trust at the time he qualifies as executor or administrator, or at any time thereafter before he intermeddles with or exercises any of the duties under said mortgage or deed of trust, except to preserve the property until a trustee can be appointed. In every such case of renunciation the clerk of the superior court of any county wherein the said mortgage or deed of trust is registered has power and authority, upon proper proceedings instituted before him, as in other cases of special proceedings, to appoint some person to act as trustee and execute said mortgage or deed of trust. The clerk, in addition to recording his proceedings in his book of orders and decrees, shall record a separate instrument, as required by G.S. 161-14.1, containing the name of the substituted trustee or mortgagee, with the register of deeds of said county.  (1905, c. 128; Rev., s. 1038; C.S., s. 2580; 1991, c. 114, s. 5; 2011-246, s. 1.)

 

§ 45-7.  Agent to sell under power may be appointed by parol.

All sales of real property, under a power of sale contained in any mortgage or deed of trust to secure the payment of money, by any mortgagee or trustee, through an agent or attorney for that purpose, appointed orally or in writing by such mortgagee or trustee, whether such writing has been or shall be registered or not, shall be valid, whether or not such mortgagee or trustee was or shall be present at such sale. (1895, c. 117; Rev., s. 1035; C.S., s. 2581; 1967, c. 562, s. 2.)

 

§ 45-8.  Survivorship among donees of power of sale.

In all mortgages and deeds of trust of real property wherein two or more persons, as trustees or otherwise, are given power to sell the property therein conveyed or embraced, and one or more of such persons dies, any one of the persons surviving having such power  may make sale of such property in the manner directed in such deed, and execute such assurances of title as are proper and lawful under the power so given; and the act of such person, in pursuance of said power, shall be as valid and binding as if the same had been done by all the persons on whom the power was conferred. (1885, c. 327, s. 2; Rev., s. 1033; C.S., s. 2582; 1967, c. 562, s. 2.)

 

§ 45-9.  Clerk appoints successor to incompetent trustee.

When the sole or last surviving trustee named in a will or deed of trust dies, removes from the county where the will was probated or deed executed and/or recorded and from the State, or in any way becomes incompetent to execute the said trust, or is a nonresident of this State, or has disappeared from the community of his residence and his whereabouts remains unknown in such community for a period of three months and cannot, after diligent inquiry be ascertained, the clerk of the superior court of the county wherein the will was probated or deed of trust was executed and/or recorded is authorized and empowered, in proceedings to which all persons interested shall be made parties, to appoint some discreet and competent person to act as trustee and execute the trust according to its true intent and meaning, and as fully as if originally appointed: Provided, that in all actions or proceedings had under this section prior to January 1, 1900, before the clerks of the superior court in which any trustee was appointed to execute a deed of trust where any trustee of a deed of trust has died, removed from the county where the deed was executed and from the State, or in any way become incompetent to execute the said trust, whether such appointment of such trustee by order or decree, or otherwise, was made upon the application or petition of any person or persons ex parte, or whether made in proceedings where all the proper parties were made, are in all things  confirmed and made valid so far as regards the parties to said actions and proceedings to the same extent as if all proper parties had originally been made in such actions or proceedings. (1869-70, c. 188; 1873-4, c. 126; Code, s. 1276; 1901, c. 576; Rev., s. 1037; C.S., s. 2583; 1933, c. 493.)

 

§ 45-10.  Substitution of trustees in mortgages and deeds of trust.

(a)       In addition to the rights and remedies now provided by law, the noteholders may, in their discretion, substitute a trustee whether the trustee then named in the instrument is the original or a substituted trustee or a holder or owner of any or all of the obligations secured thereby, by the execution of a written document properly recorded pursuant to Chapter 47 of the North Carolina General Statutes. An attorney who serves as the trustee or substitute trustee shall not represent either the noteholders or the interests of the borrower while initiating a foreclosure proceeding. Notwithstanding this restriction, an attorney may serve as the trustee in a foreclosure proceeding while simultaneously representing the noteholders on unrelated matters and others within the attorney's firm may also continue to represent the noteholders on unrelated matters. Additionally, an attorney who has as trustee initiated a foreclosure proceeding may resign as trustee after the foreclosure is contested and act as counsel to the noteholders.

(b)       If the name of a trustee is omitted from an instrument that appears on its face to be intended to be a deed of trust, the instrument shall be deemed to be a deed of trust, the owner or owners executing the deed of trust and granting an interest in the real property shall be deemed to be the constructive trustee or trustees of record for the secured party or parties named in the instrument, and a substitution of trustee may be undertaken under subsection (a) of this section. However, no such constructive trustee shall have the authority or power to take any of the following actions without the consent and joinder of the holders or owners of a majority in amount of the obligations secured by the deed of trust: (i) effect a substitution of trustee, (ii) effect the satisfaction of the deed of trust, (iii) release any property or any interest therein from the lien of the deed of trust, or (iv) modify or amend the terms of the deed of trust. Any substitute trustee named under the authority of subsection (a) of this section shall succeed to all the rights, titles, authority, and duties of the trustee under the terms of the deed of trust without regard to the limitations imposed by this subsection on the authority of a constructive trustee.

(c)       If the trustee named in a deed of trust is also the beneficiary named in that deed of trust, the instrument shall be deemed to be a deed of trust, and any substitute trustee named under the authority of subsection (a) of this section shall succeed to all the rights, titles, authority, and duties of the trustee under the terms of the deed of trust.

(d)       In this section, the term "noteholders" means the holders or owners of a majority in the amount of the indebtedness, notes, bonds, or other instruments evidencing a promise to pay money and secured by mortgages, deeds of trust, or other instruments conveying real property, or creating a lien thereon.  (1931, c. 78, ss. 1, 2; 1935, c. 227; 1943, c. 543; 1967, c. 562, s. 2; 1975, c. 66; 1985, c. 320; c. 689, s. 14; 2009-176, s. 1; 2011-312, s. 2; 2017-206, s. 6.)

 

§ 45-11.  Appointment of substitute trustee upon application of subsequent or prior lienholders; effect of substitution.

When any person, firm, corporation, county, city or town holding a lien on real property upon which there is a subsequent or prior lien created by a mortgage, deed of trust or other instrument, the mortgagee or trustee therein named being dead or having otherwise  become incompetent to act, files a written application with the clerk  of the superior court of the county in which said property is located, setting forth the facts showing that said mortgagee or trustee is then dead or has become incompetent to act, the said clerk of the superior  court, upon a proper finding of fact that said mortgagee or trustee is dead or has become incompetent to act, shall enter an order appointing some suitable and competent person, firm or corporation as substitute trustee upon whom service of process may be made, and said substitute trustee shall thereupon be vested with full power and authority to defend any action instituted to foreclose said property as fully as if he had been the original mortgagee or trustee named; but the substitute trustee shall have no power to cancel said mortgage or deed of trust without the joinder of the holder of the notes secured thereby. Said application shall not be made prior to the expiration of 30 days from the date the original mortgagee or trustee becomes incompetent to act. (1941, c. 115, s. 1; 1967, c. 562, s. 2.)

 

§ 45-12.  Repealed by Session Laws 1973, c. 1208.

 

§ 45-13.  Repealed by Session Laws 1981, c. 599, s. 12.

 

§ 45-14.  Acts of trustee prior to removal not invalidated.

If any such trustee who has been substituted as provided in G.S. 45-10 or in G.S. 45-11 shall have performed any functions as such trustee and shall thereafter be removed as provided in G.S. 45-10 to 45-17, such removal shall not invalidate or affect the validity of such acts insofar as any purchaser or third person shall be affected or interested, and any conveyances made by such trustee before removal if otherwise valid, shall be and remain valid and effectual to all intents and purposes, but if any trustee upon such hearing is declared to have been wrongfully removed, he shall have his right of action against the substituted trustee for any compensation that he would have received in case he had not been wrongfully removed from such trust. (1931, c. 78, s. 5; 1941, c. 115, s. 3.)

 

§ 45-15.  Registration of substitution constructive notice.

The registration of such paper-writing designating a new trustee under G.S. 45-10 or under G.S. 45-11 shall be from and after registration, constructive notice to all persons, and no appeal or other proceedings shall be instituted to contest the same after one year from and after such registration. (1931, c. 78, s. 6; 1941, c. 115, s. 4.)

 

§ 45-16:  Repealed by Session Laws 2012-18, s. 1.2, effective July 1, 2012.

 

§ 45-17.  Substitution made as often as justifiable.

The powers set out in G.S. 45-10 and in G.S. 45-11 may be exercised as often and as many times as the right to make such substitution may arise under the terms of such section, and all the privileges and requirements and rights to contest the same as set out in G.S. 45-10 to 45-17 shall apply to each deed of trust or mortgage and to each substitution. (1931, c. 78, s. 8; 1941, c. 115, s. 5.)

 

§ 45-18.  Validation of certain acts of substituted trustees.

Whenever before January 1, 1979, a trustee has been substituted in a deed of trust in the manner provided by G.S. 45-10 to 45-17, but the instrument executed by the holder and/or owners of all or a majority in amount of the indebtedness, notes, bonds, or other instruments secured by said deed of trust, has not been registered as  provided by said sections until after the substitute trustee has exercised some or all of the powers conferred by said deed of trust upon the trustee therein, including the advertising of the property conveyed by said deed of trust for sale, the sale thereof, and the execution of a deed by such substituted trustee to the purchaser at such sale, all such acts of said substituted trustee shall be deemed valid and effective in the same manner and to the same extent as if said instrument substituting said trustee, had been registered prior to the performance by said substituted trustee of any one or more of said acts, or other acts authorized by such deed of trust. (1939, c. 13; 1963, c. 241; 1967, c. 945; 1969, c. 477; 1971, c. 57; 1973, c. 20; 1979, c. 580.)

 

§ 45-19.  Mortgage to guardian; powers pass to succeeding guardian.

When a guardian to whom a mortgage has been executed dies or is removed or resigns before the payment of the debt secured in such mortgage, all the rights, powers and duties of such mortgagee shall devolve upon the succeeding guardian. (1905, c. 433; Rev., s. 1034; C.S., s. 2584.)

 

§ 45-20.  Sales by mortgagees and trustees confirmed.

All sales of real property made prior to February 10, 1905, by mortgagees and trustees under powers of sale contained in any mortgage or deed of trust in compliance with the powers, terms, conditions and advertisement set forth and required in any such mortgage or deed of trust, are hereby in all respects ratified and confirmed. (Ex. Sess. 1920, c. 27; C.S., s. 2584(a).)

 

§ 45-20.1.  Validation of trustees' deeds where seals omitted.

All deeds executed prior to January 1, 1991, by any trustee or substitute trustee in the exercise of the power of sale vested in him under any deed, deed of trust, mortgage, will, or other instrument in which the trustee or substitute trustee has omitted to affix his seal after his signature are validated. (1943, c. 71; 1981, c. 183, s. 1; 1983, c. 398, s. 1; 1985, c. 70, s. 1; 1987, c. 277, s. 1; 1989, c. 390, s. 1; 1991, c. 489, s. 1.)

 

§ 45-20.2.  Repealed by Session Laws 1981, c. 183, s. 2.

 

§ 45-20.3.  Validation of deeds where seal omitted on power of attorney.

All deeds and other conveyances executed prior to January 1, 1991, by any attorney-in-fact in the exercise of a power of attorney are valid even though the signature of the principal was not affixed under seal on the instrument creating the power of attorney. (1991, c. 489, s. 1.1.)

 

§ 45-21.  Validation of appointment of and conveyances to corporations as trustees.

In all deeds of trust made prior to March 15, 1941, wherein property has been conveyed to corporations as trustees to secure indebtedness, the appointment of said corporations as trustees, the conveyances to said corporate trustees, and the action taken under the powers of such deeds of trust by said corporate trustees are hereby confirmed and validated to the same extent as if such corporate trustees had been individual trustees. (1941, c. 245, s. 1.)

 

§ 45-21.01.  Foreclosure of deeds of trust and mortgages on property affected by boundary certification.

(a)       Foreclosure actions initiated on real property encumbered by a security instrument recorded in South Carolina wherein the real property is situated, in whole or in part, within the certified North Carolina boundaries shall be governed by the terms of the security instrument sought to be enforced for that portion of real property recognized as being in a different state. If the security instrument contains a power of sale clause, the party seeking to enforce the terms of the security instrument may initiate a foreclosure action in the county where the real property is situated pursuant to this Chapter. A party seeking to enforce the terms of the security instrument may also resort to judicial foreclosure, pursuant to Article 29A of Chapter 1 of the General Statutes, in accordance with the terms within the security instrument. Judgments or orders of foreclosure entered by courts of this State are binding and effective only with respect to the portion of real property situated within this State. Prior to initiating an action to enforce a security instrument, the security instrument or a certified copy shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds for the county where the subject property is situated. The provisions of G.S. 45-10(a) shall apply with regard to the appointment or substitution of a trustee for any mortgage or deed of trust foreclosed pursuant to this section.

(b)       Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, for mortgages foreclosed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, a mortgagee or its successors or assigns shall be entitled to bid at a foreclosure sale conducted pursuant to a judgment or order of foreclosure entered by the courts of this State.  (2016-23, ss. 4(a), (b).)